Date:

Thu, 10/11/202212:15-13:15

Zeroes in Superconductivity and Novel Approaches to Measure Microscopic

Properties of Superconductors*

Vladimir Kozhevnikov

Tulsa Community College, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA

KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

Zero, or inverse infinity, is a special number or value which, at first glance, has no physical

meaning. Recall that zero was absent in Roman calculus. Indeed, what does it mean to

measure a quantity having zero magnitude? What would be a relative uncertainty of such a

measurement? It is generally believed that a physical quantity can approach infinitely close

to zero, but cannot be equal to it. Superconductivity demonstrates right the opposite,

namely that some characteristics of superconductors take an exactly zero value in the entire

temperature and field range of the superconducting state. Remarkably, that

superconductivity was discovered by Kamerlingh Onnes in the same year, when Ernest

Rutherford discovered that electrons in atoms make closed currents with exactly zero

losses. However, superconductors are "richer" by zeroes: the most important of them are

zero resistance, zero entropy and zero magnetic induction. Respectively, any adequate

theory of superconductivity should automatically lead to these three “big zeroes”. As

known, no standard theory meets this condition.

In this talk I will present a novel theoretical model reproducing the aforementioned zeroes

and other properties of superconductors. The model is based on the concept of Cooper pairs

obeying the Borh-Sommerfeld quantization condition. The model consistently describes

properties of the Meissner state and beyond, including non-equilibrium properties of

superconductors caused by a total current; some of them, being known for many decades

are explained for the first time. The model is free from the shortcomings of standard

theories, while reproducing their achievements. It will be shown that in addition to the “big

zeroes”, superconductors have two more very important zeros: zero generalized linear

momentum of Cooper pairs and zero temperature of an ensemble of the pairs. All

properties have a single origin: quantization of the angular momentum of the paired

electrons. The model predicts a number of new effects that can help resolving the problem

of electron pairing in all superconductors. These effects will be discussed.

*V. K., Meissner Effect. History of Development and Novel Aspects, J Supercond Nov

Magn 34, 1979-2009 (2021); Electrodynamics of Superconductors, in Encyclopedia of

Condensed Matter Physics, 2nd ed., Elsevier 2022 (https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-

90800-9.00036-6).

Properties of Superconductors*

Vladimir Kozhevnikov

Tulsa Community College, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA

KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

Zero, or inverse infinity, is a special number or value which, at first glance, has no physical

meaning. Recall that zero was absent in Roman calculus. Indeed, what does it mean to

measure a quantity having zero magnitude? What would be a relative uncertainty of such a

measurement? It is generally believed that a physical quantity can approach infinitely close

to zero, but cannot be equal to it. Superconductivity demonstrates right the opposite,

namely that some characteristics of superconductors take an exactly zero value in the entire

temperature and field range of the superconducting state. Remarkably, that

superconductivity was discovered by Kamerlingh Onnes in the same year, when Ernest

Rutherford discovered that electrons in atoms make closed currents with exactly zero

losses. However, superconductors are "richer" by zeroes: the most important of them are

zero resistance, zero entropy and zero magnetic induction. Respectively, any adequate

theory of superconductivity should automatically lead to these three “big zeroes”. As

known, no standard theory meets this condition.

In this talk I will present a novel theoretical model reproducing the aforementioned zeroes

and other properties of superconductors. The model is based on the concept of Cooper pairs

obeying the Borh-Sommerfeld quantization condition. The model consistently describes

properties of the Meissner state and beyond, including non-equilibrium properties of

superconductors caused by a total current; some of them, being known for many decades

are explained for the first time. The model is free from the shortcomings of standard

theories, while reproducing their achievements. It will be shown that in addition to the “big

zeroes”, superconductors have two more very important zeros: zero generalized linear

momentum of Cooper pairs and zero temperature of an ensemble of the pairs. All

properties have a single origin: quantization of the angular momentum of the paired

electrons. The model predicts a number of new effects that can help resolving the problem

of electron pairing in all superconductors. These effects will be discussed.

*V. K., Meissner Effect. History of Development and Novel Aspects, J Supercond Nov

Magn 34, 1979-2009 (2021); Electrodynamics of Superconductors, in Encyclopedia of

Condensed Matter Physics, 2nd ed., Elsevier 2022 (https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-

90800-9.00036-6).